The Lute Online Resources Portal (LORP): Mandora Colachon Or Gallichon


This was a form of lute played mainly in the German-speaking lands in the 18th century. It looks something like a renaissance lute, and thus represented a return to a simpler design when the main development of the lute had been to a large, unwieldy instruments of 11 to 15 courses.

There is now a website dedicated to the instrument: or

An essay can be found at the Accords Nouveaux website:, printed essays are found in Luth et luthistes en Occident, actes du colloque 13-15 Mai 1998 (Cite de la Musique, Paris) and by Lynda Sayce in Lute News 67, available at, also and Donald Gill, ‘Alternative Lutes: The Identity of 18th Century Mandores and Gallichones’, The Lute xxvi part 2, (1986). Also a short essay by Andreas Schlegel ‘Colascione, galizona, mandora—a clarification’, in The Lutezine 126, ‘Defining the mandora and calichon, an organological study of the instruments of Gregori Ferdinand Wenger. You can also search for mandora at

It is not be confused with the mandore, a small treble lute, resembling a mandolin, perhaps inspired by the late mediaeval gittern, found in France from c.1570 into the 17th century.

Here is list of sources & short bibliography compiled by Lynda Sayce.

Amberg, Staats und Stadtarchiv, MS 39 (RISM 5). Gallichon, 1730-40, Fr tab, 6c, 191pieces.
Augsburg, Staats und Stadt Bibliothek, Ms Tonkunst Schl. 290. 1740-50, 6c mandora, Fr tab, 158ff.
- Ms Tonkunst Schl. 509. 1740-50, 6c mandora, Fr tab, 96ff.
Brno, Staatsarchiv. E6 Karton 498. Solo, 8c, 116 pieces. Not in RISM.
- Ms Kart 296, E.6.k 139. Early 18th C, Fr tab, 5c mandora, 79ff.
Brno, Mährisches Museum, D 189. Solo, early 18th C, Fr tab, 6c, 132 pieces inc. Logy.
- A 20.545. Voice & mandora, solos, mid 18th C, Fr tab, 27ff, 8c, 109 pieces.
- A 27.750. Solos, early 18th C, Fr tab, 6c mandora, 8c. 101ff, 208 pieces.
Brussels, Conservatoire, Ms Littera S.16,1662. 7c mandora, It gtr tab, 1612.(?)
- Ms 5.619. Fr tab, 6c mandora, 198 pieces, c.1720?
- Ms Littera S. No 15.132. 1720-35. Duets for 12c lutes & 6c gallichons.
Budapest, Nationalbibl. Ms. mus 2.551. 2 vns, jews harp, 8c mandora, basso. 4 pieces.
- Ms.mus 2.552. 2vns, va, jews harp, 8c mandora, basso. 3 pieces.
- Ms.mus 2.553. 2vns, jews harp, 8c mandora, basso. 5 pieces.
Donaueschingen, Fürst. Fürstenberfgische Hofbibliothek Ms mus 1272,1. Fr tab, 6c gallichon, 1735, 171ff.
Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, Musikabteilung, Ms Mus 2/V/5. c 1740, Fr tab for 2 6c gallichons, fl, bass. Gallichon parts only. 4ff.
- Ms mus 2/V/6. Sonate a due Gallichane. c1740, Fr tab, 6c, 14ff.
- Ms Mus 2/V/7. Duets for 2 6c mandoras, Fl, Vn, B. Fr tab, c1740.
- Ms Mus 2364/V/1 Brescianello, 6c, c1740-5, Fr tab, 60ff.
- Ms Mus 2364/V/2 Brescianello, 18 partitas. Fr tab, 6c, c1740, 80ff.
- Ms Mus 2701/V/1 Tre Serenate per il Gallichone de Duce Clemente di Baviera. 1735-40, Fr tab, 6c, 14ff.
- Ms Mus 2701/V/1a Tre Serenate... Mid 18th C, Fr tab, 6c 14ff.
- Ms Mus 2806/V/1 Schiffelholz 6 duets for Gallichon & cello. c1740, Fr tab, 6c, 14ff.
- Ms Mus 2806/V/2 Schiffelholz 6 trios, 6c gallichon(s), vn(s), vc. c1740, Fr tab, 28ff.
- Ms Mus 2806/V/2a. Schiffelholz, trios, 2 gallichons or vns, vc. Mid 18th C, Fr tab, 28ff.
- Ms Mus 2806/V/3 Schiffelholz Parthie, 2 6c gallichons, 2 vns, vc. c.1740, Fr tab, 8ff.
- Ms Mus 2806/V/4. Schiffelholz, 6 partitas, solo. 6c, c1740, Fr tab, 10ff.
- Ms Mus 2806/V/5 Gallichon duets, c.1740, Fr tab, 10ff, 6c.
- Handschriftenabteilung. Ms J.307m. Early 17th C, Fr tab, 68ff, 6c.
Eichstätt, Universitätsbibliothek, Sammlung Schlecht. Esl VI 91 formerly VII 29. 63 songs, voice & mandora.
- Esl 145 formerly VII 89. ‘Noten Buch Eichstätt 1818 für Guitare oder Mandora...’ 2 Fantasias by Zink, 44 songs for voice & mandora. Some concordances with Weyarn 692.
- Esl VI 403 formerly IX 85. For 2vn/mandoras, missing 2nd mandora pt. Zink.
- Esl VII 264 formerly IX 4, and Esl VIII 264 (from f 1). 48 solos, 2 vocal pieces by Mozart.
- Esl VI 62 formerly XXXIII Z 21. Arias from Schermer; ‘Dier lateinische Bürgermeister’. Zink.
- Esl VI 99 formerly XII 101. Arias from Süssmayr ‘Sultan Wampum’ arr Zink.
- Esl VI 103. ‘Lob ber Farben’ (Müchler) arr J Zink.
- Esl VII 153 formerly VII 32. Song for mandora, Zink.
- Esl VII 164 formerly VII 39. Song by Zink, guitar notation.
- Esl VII 201 formerly VII 22. Staff notation with tablature in bass.
- Esl VI 152 formerly VII 26. Duets for 2 mandoras, song (2 voices) from W Müller ‘Das neue Sonntagskind’.
- Esl VI 162 formerly XXXIII Z 1. Voice plus 2 mandoras, 2vn, fl, bass. Zink.
- Esl VIII 81,2 formerly XXII S 2. Voice & 7 instruments; ‘Der Mandorfiend’.
- EslVI 151 formerly VII 54. Voice, 2vn, fl, mandora, 2 hrn, bass. Zink.
- Esl VI 158 formerly VIII K 3. Voice & 8 insts; Kneferle ‘Der Mandorspötter’.
- Esl VIII 81 formerly XXII S 1/2. Voice & 11 insts; ‘Der Mandorfiend’.
- Esl VII 591 formerly XXXIII Z 25. Sonattina in g, Mandora & violin, Zink.
- Esl VIII 34 formerly VII K 8 (Cembalo) and Esl VIII 127 (mandora). 6 sonatas for mandora & harpsichord by Kneferle.
- Esl VIII 41 formerly VIII K 6. Kneferle, 6 Duetti for harpsichord & mandora.
- Esl VII 452 formerly IX 34. Sonata in C, mandora, vn, vc.
- Esl VIII 78 formerly VIII K 2. Trio primo (Kneferle) Fl Trav, vla, mandora.
- Esl VIII 540 formerly XXXIII Z 8. arr Zink. Trios for mandora, vn, bsn.
- Esl VIII 542 formerly XXXIII Z 4. Trios arr mandora, vn, bsn by Zink, from Müller, ‘Das Sonnenfest der Braminen’.
- Esl VIII 558 formerly XXXIII Z 7. Zink, Trio for mandora, vn, bsn.
- Esl VIII 545 formerly XXXIII Z 20. Zink Serenata, Mandora, fl, vn,bsn/vc. Identical with Weyarn 663.
- Esl VIII 546 formerly XXXIII Z 18. Zink Sonata in g, Mandora, vn, fl, vc.
- Esl VIII 547 formerly XXXIII Z 17. Zink Sonata 2 in g, Mandora, vn, fl, vc.
- Esl VIII 551 formerly XXXIII Z 16. Zink Sonata in f, Mandora, vn, fl, vc.
- Esl VIII 557 formerly XXXIII Z 5. Zink Sextetto inc Mandora.
- Esl VIII 29 formerly VIII K 7. Kneferle Parthita in Eb. 2ob, 2fl, 2cl, 2vla, 2hn, trpt, 2 bsn, mandora, contrabasso piccolo.
- Esl VIII 81, 3 formerly XXII S 5/4. Cantata ‘Mandora! Mandora!’ 15 insts, but no mandora!
- Esl VIII 81,4 formerly XXII S 4/5. Duetto der Mandora Fiend und Freund. Excl Mandora.
- fragment; wsm. Mandora part for trio in C. Zink.
- fragment, wsm. Mandora part for trios in F, Zink.
Freising, Diözesanmuseum, Wey 662. From Kloster Weyarn. J. Zink.
- Wey 663
- Wey 664
- Wey 682
- Wey 692.
Graz, Steierm, Landesarchiv, Hs. 1869. Solo, 6c, 1710-20, Fr tab, 65 ff, 186 pieces.
Hamburg, UB. ND VI 3242. Solos, 8c, 169 pieces.
Krakow, Mus Ms 40146 (formerly Berlin). 217 pieces, 114 for solo mandora, others for mandora and violin, but violin part missing.
Kremsmünster, Stift. Fasc 50 Nr. 168. Solo, 9. 35 pieces.
- Fasc. 50 Nr 169. Vn, 6c mandora, basso. 7 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 170. Vn, 6c mandora, basso. 11 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 171. 2 vns, 6c mandora, basso. 6 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 172. 2 vns, 9c mandora, basso. 5 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 173. Vl, 8c mandora, basso. 4 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 174. 2 vns, 6c mandora, basso. 6 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 175. 2 vns, 8c mandora, basso. 4 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 176. 2 vns, 6c mandora, basso. 5 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 177. 2 vns, (fl), 6c mandora, basso. 3 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 178. Vn, 9c mandora, basso. 4 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 179. Vn (fl), 9c mandora, vc. 3 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 180. Vn (fl), 9c mandora, Vc. 3 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 181. Vn, 6c mandora, basso. 5 pieces.
- Fasc 50, Nr 183. Vn, (fl), 9c mandora, vc. 5 pieces.
Leipzig, Musikbibliothek der Stadt, Ms III.12.18. c1745, Fr tab, 6c, 47ff.
Linz, Studienbibliothek. Ms 569. Solos, mid 18th C, Fr tab, 6c, 12ff, 9 pieces.
London, Royal Academy of Music, Spencer collection, no shelfmark. Fr tab, 66ff, ff. 38-41 for 6c mandora, c1720.
Lund, Universitetsbiblioteket, Handskriftsavdetsungen Ms Littera G.No 28. Fr tab, 112ff, 6c, c.1700.
- Ms Littera G.No 31. Early 18th C, Fr tab, 28ff, 6c.
- Ms Littera G.No 35. Early 18th C, Fr tab, 24ff, 6c.
Marzani, Villa Lagrina, no shelfmark. Solo, 6c, 69 pieces.
Melk, Stift. No shelfmark. Vn, 6c mandora, vc. 4 pieces.
- No shelfmark. Vn, (fl), 6c mandora, basso. 3 pieces.
- No shelfmark. 2 mandoras, 6c. 3 pieces.
- VI 1836. Fl, (vn), 6c mandora, basso. 5 pieces.
- VI 1839. Fl, (vn), 6c mandora, basso. 5 pieces.
- VI 1840. Vn, (fl), 6c mandora, basso. 3 pieces.
- VI 1987. Vn, (fl), 6c mandora, basso. 8 pieces.
Metten, Archiv der Benediktiner-Abtei, ms mus, pract. Nr 90. For 2 gallichons & cello. Mid 18th C, Fr tab, 7ff, 6c.
- Ms mus. pract.Nr 91. For 6c Gallichon, 2vns, bass. Mid 18th C, Fr tab, 4ff.
- Ms mus.pract. Nr 91b.Solos & duets. Mid 18th C, Fr tab, 16ff, 6c.
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Musiksammlung. Ms Mus 504. Mid-18th C, Fr tab, 42ff, 6c.
- Mus Ms 10343. 10pp. 6c mandora. Solos.
Oslo, Universitetsbiblioteket, Dandskriftsavdelrungen, Ms 294a Norsk Musikksamling. Fr tab, 54ff, 6c, c.1685-1705.
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Ms Res Vmc ms.6. Late 17th C, It tab, 66ff, 5c mandora, Matteo Caccini, Reno, Meccoli.
Regensburg, Proske’sche Musikbibliothek Ms mus A.R.778. Mid 18th C, Fr tab, 12ff.
Rochester, NY, Ms Vault M 125 Fl XVII. For lute & mandora, c.1660.

Further Reading

Gill, Donald ‘Alternative Lutes; The Identity of 18th Century Mandores and Gallichones’ The Lute, XXVI/2, 1986, p.51.
- Mandores and Colachons. Galpin Society Journal 34, 1981, p.130.
Hodgson, Martin The Identity of 18th Century 6 Course Lutes. FoMRHI Quarterly, Bulletin 14, Comm 175.
- The Development of the Callachon. FoMRHI Quarterly Bulletin 15, Comm 194.
Kirsch, Dieter ‘Musik für Mandora in der Universitätsbibliothek Eichstätt’in Sammelblatt Historischer Verein Eichstätt 86 Jahrgang 1993. (Eichstätt 1993).
- Die Mandora in Österreich Zur Bestimmung eines Lautentyps des 18. Jahrhunderts. Vom Pasqualatihaus, 4, 1995.
- La mandora au XVIIIe siècle. Luths et luthistes en Occident, (Paris, Cité de la Musique, 1999), p.327.
Prosser, Pietro ‘Uno Sconosciuto Metodo Manoscritto (1756); Considerazioni sull identificazione della mandora nel XVIII secolo’. In Strumenti per Mozart. (Rovereto, 1991), p.293.
Rifkin, Joshua ‘Some questions of performance in J.S. Bach’s ‘Trauerode’, in A Bach Reader ed Daniel Melamed. p 119.